Quart.Review, April, 1900.] The infamous Borgias were Spanish nobles who attained power and wealth in Spain and across the Italian peninsula during the Renaissance by securing high-ranking civic and ecclesiastical offices. Pope Alexander VII Gasparo Morone. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01294a.htm. Contact information. Cath. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. 3. Anacletus, 77–78. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. That he obtained the papacy through simony was the general belief (Pastor, loc. Pope Alexander VI made many alliances to secure his position. Lucrezia Borgia was an Italian noblewoman and daughter of Pope Alexander VI. His burden being in this way lightened, he passed much of his time in literary pursuits and in the society of the learned; but the friends whom he favoured were those who could be best relied on as counsellors. He also made extensive additions to the Vatican Library. Innocent X called him to Rome in 1651 to be his secretary of state, and in February, 1652, made him Cardinal. The conclave believed he was strongly opposed to the nepotism then prevalent. At a time when churchmen were being forced to realize the deplorable consequences, moral and financial, of nepotism, there was needed a pope who would rule without the aid of relatives. The future Pope's father, Flavio Chigi, nephew of Pope Paul V, though not as prosperous as his forebears, gave his son a suitable training. Alexander VII was the pope who commissioned Bernini to enclose St. Peter's Square with the colonnade. His pontificate was marked by several disputes; he confirmed the condemnation of Jansenism but supported the Jesuits, allowing them to use Chinese rites for their mission work in China. (See JANSENIUS.) Regrettably, I can't reply to every letter, but I greatly appreciate your feedback — especially notifications about typographical errors and inappropriate ads. Through the support of Cardinal Alfonso Borgia, Rodrigo o… Secretary of state to Pope Innocent X in 1651 and made cardinal in 1652, Chigi was elected pope on April 7. This principle received its most famous epigrammatic articulation in Alexander Pope's apothegm from "An Essay on Criticism" (1711) urging that "The sound must seem an echo to the sense" (1. Grandnephew of Pope Paul V, Chigi served the church as vice legate at Ferrara and as nuncio at Cologne (1639–51). March 1, 1907. New York: Robert Appleton Company. He was also a patron of learning, modernized the Roman University, known as Sapienza, and enriched it with a magnificent library. My email address is webmaster at newadvent.org. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. III,414) his moderation in the heated dogmatic controversies of the period. (See THIRTY-YEARS WAR.) The inimical relations between Spain and Portugal occasioned by the latter's establishment of independence (1640) were a source of grave trials for Alexander, as for other popes before and after him. The princes, however, were tired of war and, despite his admonition, yielded to France and the Protestants. Nihil Obstat. 4. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). In this era, it wasn’t too scandalous for high-ranking church officials to … Birthplace: Játiva, Spain Location of death: Rome, Italy Cause of death: unspecified Remains: Buried, . 6943005, citing Santa Maria in Monserrato degli Spagnoli, Rome, Città Metropolitana di Roma Capitale, Lazio, Italy ; Maintained by Find A Grave . . They were also sensitive, inspired, and highly accomplished poets. This article was transcribed for New Advent by Gerard Haffner. In 1662 the equally hostile Duc de Crequi was made ambassador. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1907. Due to poor health that began in infancy he was educated primarily at home, first by his mother and subsequently by tutors. Updates? Borgia, by a bare two-thirds majority secured by his own vote, was proclaimed Pope on the morning of 11 Aug., 1492, and took the name of Alexander VI. Ecclesiastical approbation. In 1639 he was promoted to the nunciature of Cologne; and in 1644 was made envoy extraordinary of Innocent X to the conference of Münster, in which post he energetically defended papal interests during the negotiations that led, in 1648, to the Peace of Westphalia. 7. He kept his coffin in his bedroom, and a skull (carved by famed sculptor Bernini) on his writing table, because he was always aware that he would someday die. Sixtus I, 115–25? Peter's - Guide to the Basilica and Square' Opposite and on the right, is the famous monument of Alexander VII (1655-1667), the last great masterpiece of the … Pope Alexander VI. When Innocent X died, Chigi, the candidate favoured by Spain, was elected pope after eighty days in the conclave, on 7 April 1655, taking the name of Alexander VII.. Nepotism. In the Rome of Renaissance times, an ancestor of Alexander VII was known as the "Magnificent". APA citation. A notorious reputation precedes her, and she is inextricably, … Pope Alexander VII Fabio Chigi. Peterson, John Bertram. Houses were levelled to make way for straighter streets and broad piazzas, the Collegio Romano. However, he prevented Louis XIV from sending the usual embassy of obedience to Alexander VII, and, while he lived, hindered the appointment of a French ambassador to Rome, diplomatic affairs being meantime conducted by cardinal protectors, generally personal enemies of the Pope. In the Rome of Renaissance times, an ancestor of Alexander VII was known as the “Magnificent”. Peter, d. 64–67. Fabio Chigi, born at Sienna, 13 February, 1599; elected 7 April, 1655; died at Rome, 22 May, 1667.The Chigi of Sienna were among the most illustrious and powerful of Italian families.In the Rome of Renaissance times, an ancestor of Alexander VII was known as the "Magnificent". Alexander VII, POPE (FABIO CHIGI), b. at Sienna, February 13, 1599; elected April 7, 1655; d. at Rome, May 22, 1667.The Chigi of Sienna were among the most illustrious and powerful of Italian families. Learn more about this artwork. Pope John XII (955 to 964) Attaining the title of pope at age 18, John XII was quickly deemed lazy … He sought help from Charles VIII of France (1483–1498), who was allied to Ludovico "Il Moro" (the Moor, so called because of his swarthy complexion) Sforza, the de factoDuke of Milan, who needed French support to legitimise his rule. Title: Pope Alexander VII; Creator: Gasparo Morone; Date Created: 17th century; Borgia was forced to end his public relationship with Cattanei, who remained the matriarch of the family from her own residence in Rome. Alexander forbade his relatives to come to Rome. Alexander VII died at age 66 from kidney failure. He Kept Multiple Mistresses. Pope Alexander VII Alexander VII was the 237th person to lead the Catholic Church and the seventh among them to take the papal name of Alexander. As the Spanish faction was well disposed towards Chigi there now remained only Donna Olympia to win over. Imprimatur. His reign is memorable in the annals of moral theology for the condemnation of a number of erroneous propositions. Rodrigo Borgia, the baby boy who would become Pope Alexander VI, one of the most infamous Popes of all time, was born in Valencia, Spain on New Year's Day in 1431. Alexander VII, original name Fabio Chigi, (born Feb. 13, 1599, Siena, Republic of Florence—died May 22, 1667, Rome), pope from 1655 to 1667. MLA citation. Download this artwork (provided by The Metropolitan Museum of Art). Alexander I, 105–15. The endeavours of the Chigi to enrich their family were too indulgently regarded by the Pope; but, ever pious and devout, he was far from having a share in the excesses of his luxury-loving nephews. cit.) Peterson, J.B. (1907). In The Rhetoric Fiction, Wayne Booth (1961, ed. Evaristus, 97–105. Omissions? 5. Includes the Catholic Encyclopedia, Church Fathers, Summa, Bible and more — all for only $19.99... Fabio Chigi, born at Sienna, 13 February, 1599; elected 7 April, 1655; died at Rome, 22 May, 1667. 365). Fabio Chigi was born at Siena in 1599, the son of a distinguished family of bankers. In 1627 he was appointed by Urban VIII Vice-Legate of Ferrara, and he served five years under the Cardinals Sacchetti and Pallotta, whose commendations won for him the important post of Inquisitor of Malta, together with the episcopal consecration. Pope Alexander VI August 11, 1492 to August 18, 1503. The French prime minister, Cardinal Mazarin, had not forgiven the legate who resolutely opposed him at the conferences of Munster and Osnabrück, or the papal secretary of state who stood in the way of his anti-Roman policy. Emboldened by these triumphs, the French Jansenists, who recognized in Alexander an old enemy, became insolently assertive, professing that the propositions condemned in 1653 were not to be found in the "Augustinus" of Cornelius Jansen. Pope Alexander VI (Latin: Alexander Sextus; 1431–1503), born Rodrigo Lanzol y Borja, was an Spanish cleric of the Roman Catholic Church and the 215th Pope from 1492 to 1503. Details. Linus, 67–76? Inter Caetera – Division of the undiscovered world between Spain and Portugal – May 4, 1493 [Bull] Pope Alexander VII April 7, 1655 to May 22, 1667. Borgia sought to appear as a great Pope, despite his engagement in public lechery, simony, and other forms of corruption. Alexander VII, given name Fabio Chigi, Roman Catholic Pope from 1655 to 1667, was born at Siena on the 13th of February 1599. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01294a.htm. Alexander VI, given name Rodrigo Borgia, Roman Catholic Pope from 1492 until his death, is the most memorable of the corrupt and secular popes of the Renaissance. Alexander VI and his son Cesare Borgia emerged as two of the most feared and hated figures in Italy during the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries, leading some to believe Pope Alexander VI's cause of death was assassination. 6. Transcription. The choice was considered providential. Borgia, by a bare two-thirds majority secured by his own vote, was proclaimed Pope on the morning of 11 Aug., 1492, and took the name of Alexander VI. During the conclave he had been bitterly hostile to Chigi, but was in the end compelled to accept his election as a compromise. As King Ferdinand I of Naples was threatening to come to the aid of the rightful duke Gian Galeazzo, the husband of his granddaughter Isabella, Alexander VI encouraged the French king in his plan for the conquest of N… From: 'St. Alexander VI, corrupt, wordly, and ambitious pope (1492–1503), whose neglect of the spiritual inheritance of the church contributed to the development of the Protestant Reformation. The decorations of the church of Sta. A seventeenth-century pamphlet credited to Ayres, titled A short Account of the Life and Death of Pope Al… (See LOUIS XIV.) The latter owed much also to his mother, a woman of singular power and skill in the formation of youth. The Chigi of Sienna were among the most illustrious and powerful of Italian families. Quart. Alexander VII, original name Fabio Chigi, (born Feb. 13, 1599, Siena, Republic of Florence—died May 22, 1667, Rome), pope from 1655 to 1667. His tomb by Bernini is one of the most beautiful monuments in St. Peter's. Abandoning their support of either pope, they called a council at Pisa in 1409, where they deposed both the Roman and Avignonese claimants and elected a third, Alexander V, who established the papal throne at Pisa. Source(s): c2+: CB; b: The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church, 19 Feb 1652 Cath. Clement I, 88–97. [For details of the conclave see Pastor, "Hist. During the negotiations leading to the Peace of Westphalia (1648), he refused to deliberate with the Protestant heretics and urged the Catholic princes not to sacrifice the rights of the church. Unable to attend school, he was taught first by his mother, and later by able tutors, and displayed remarkable precocity and love of reading. Urban VIII and Alexander VII each occupied the papal throne during the seventeenth century, and were munificent and discriminating patrons of the arts, as well as men of conspicuous erudition and imagination. Mother and subsequently by tutors was also a patron of learning, the... 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